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2020 Alumni Refresher Course:
Background Reading

Each of the lectures in the Alumni Refresher Course had one or more recommended readings which participants were asked to review prior to the session. See also the general information on free downloads of the EMB Book and World Ocean Review (bottom of page).

Mon. 16th November
Ratana Chuenpagdee - WHY DO SMALL-SCALE FISHERIES MATTER FOR OCEAN SUSTAINABILITY?

    Reading: Ratana Chuenpagdee and Svein Jentoft, "Small-scale Fisheries: Too Important to Fail" in The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development: Essays in Honour of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002), edited by IOI-Canada (Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2018), pp. 349-353.
    Questions: 1. What are small-scale fisheries and who are small-scale fisheries people? 2. Besides being small, what are their key characteristics? 3. What are the “services” that small-scale fisheries provide for society? 4. Small-scale fisheries are largely an informal sector. What does that mean, and is it a good or bad thing? 5. What are the reasons why small-scale fisheries are under-appreciated in the current political situation? 6. Do small-scale fisheries have rights? If so, what kind of rights? 7. The SSF Guidelines are “voluntary”. What does it mean and does it matter?

Wed. 18th November

Larry Hildebrand - THE INTERNATIONAL DECADE OF OCEAN ACTION (2021-2030): STEPPING UP TO MEET OUR AMBITIONS AND TARGETS
    Reading: Wendy Watson-Wright and J. Luis Valdes, "Fragmented Governance of Our One Global Ocean" in The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development: Essays in Honour of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002), edited by IOI-Canada (Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2018) pp. 16-22.
    Questions: 1. What is the solution to the ‘fragmented ocean governance’? Is there one? Should there be one big organization for the global ocean that covers everything? 2. How do we effectively bring together the economic, environmental, and social pillars of sustainability in our pursuit of a blue economy? 3. Is there a country you think is better than the others with respect to ocean governance? Which one and why? 4. How are ocean and coastal issues addressed within your country’s government? Can you think of how actions to determine and address these issues might be better coordinated? 5. If you were Secretary General of the UN, what changes if any would you make to bring more attention and action to ocean issues and what if anything would you do to better coordinate global ocean actions by UN member states?

Mon. 23rd November
Daniel Lane - ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE OCEAN
    Readings:
    1. From The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development: Essays in Honour of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002), edited by IOI-Canada (Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2018): (i) Karen N. Scott, Legal Aspects of Climate Change" (pp. 169-174); (ii) Peter J. Ricketts, "Ocean and Climate Change Action: Opportunities for Economic and Environmental Sustainability" (pp. 316-321); (iii) John A. Cigliano, "The Role of Citizen Science in Ocean Governance" (pp. 252-257)
    2. Lane, D., Beigzadeh, S., and Moll, R. 2017. Adaptation Decision Support: An Application of System Dynamics Modeling in Coastal Communities. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science. 8: 374–389.
    3. Lane, D. 2020. Responding to the Call for Climate Action. Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science. Volume 50 Part 2, pp.237-247. https://ojs.library.dal.ca/nsis/article/view/nsis50-2lane/8830
    Questions: 1. What are the effects of the covid-19 global pandemic on ocean climate change actions and policies? 2. How does your nation/region identify with coastal and ocean climate change global policies and actions, e.g., SDG14, the Paris Accord, carbon emission metrics? 3. How have your actions changed in response to your personal adaptation to the changing climate? 4. What are the most important impacts of climate events in your region, e.g., from hurricanes and typhoons, fires, storm surge including impacts to the environment, the economy, society, and culture? 5. What is the most effective why of engaging the local citizenry in active and regular climate action, specifically in carbon emission reduction?

Wed. 25th November
Sean Brillant - THE NEXUS OF THREATENED MARINE MAMMALS AND COMMERCIAL FISHERIES
    Readings:
    1. Sean Brillant, "Is Canada Protecting Its Marine Species at Risk?" in The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development: Essays in Honour of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002), edited by IOI-Canada (Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2018), pp. 293-297.
    2. Kimberley Davies and Sean Brillant, 2019. Mass human-caused mortality spurs federal action to protect endangered North Atlantic right whales in Canada" Marine Policy, Vol. 104, pp. 157-162.
    Questions: 1. Why does it matter that fisheries be responsible for reducing the unintended harm their operations cause? 2. Explain your prediction of what will occur if we do not act to reduce accidental mortalities caused by fisheries. 3. What potential costs of fisheries entanglements are being externalized? 4. How can commercial fisheries change, and what is their new form?

Mon. 30th November
François Bailet - BLUE ECONOMY, OCEAN GOVERNANCE AND LOS

Wed. 2nd December
Murielle Provost with David Griffiths - EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT IN THE COASTAL ZONE

Mon. 7th December
Bob Edwards - MARITIME SECURITY - CHALLENGES, OBLIGATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES
    Readings:
    1. "Maritime security and safety", Section V, Oceans and the law of the sea, Report of the Secretary General, United Nations, Sixty-third session, 10th March 2008, pp. 14-44.
    2. African Union, Charter on Maritime Security and Safety and Development in Africa (LOMÉ CHARTER), Adopted by the Extraordinary Session of the Assembly, Lomé, Togo - 15th October 2016.
    3. David Griffiths, “Security Dimensions of Ocean Governance” in The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development: Essays in Honour of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002), edited by IOI-Canada (Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2018) pp. 410-415.
    Questions: 1. Is it 'maritime security,' or 'maritime insecurity'? 2. Is climate change a threat to maritime security? What about sea-level rise? And, what about illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing? 3. What is the relationship between maritime security and sustainable development? 4. Has COVID-19 affected global maritime security? 5. What are key features of an effective maritime security strategy? 6. What are current challenges in maritime security? 7. What is 'the elephant in the room' in maritime security?

Wed. 9th December
Peter Wells - HEALTH OF THE OCEAN
    Readings:
    1. Peter G. Wells, “Health of the Ocean” in The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development: Essays in Honour of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002), edited by IOI-Canada (Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2018) pp. 192-198.
    2. Michael H. Depledge, Oceans, Health, and Well-Being" in The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development: Essays in Honour of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002), edited by IOI-Canada (Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2018) pp. 199-204.
    Questions: 1. What do the terms 'health', 'ocean health', and 'ecosystem health' mean to you, in the context of your experience? 2. What is the difference between contamination and pollution, as defined internationally in UNCLOS? 3. What are the sources of marine pollution in your country? 4. How important is monitoring (of all kinds) to understanding the short and long terms effects of marine pollution? 5. Are there other kinds of stressors, besides chemical pollution, impinging on coastal waters and how would they rank in importance? 6. Are there signs of resilience or recovery from any of the stressors on coastal waters of your country? 7. For your coastal and offshore waters, is ocean health staying the same, getting worse, or improving with time? 8. Have you heard of and used the Ocean Health Index (OHI) approach to describing ocean health in your country? 9. Are assessment reports on state of the oceans useful to policy and decision makers in governmental efforts to protect ocean health?

Fri. 11th December
Susanna Fuller - PROGRESS TOWARDS A NEW HIGH SEAS TREATY

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Other key issues in ocean governance can be found in The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development - Essays in Honour of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002).  Commemorating the 100th anniversary of EMB's birth, this volume edited by IOI-Canada features contributions from over 80 specialists and practitioners in the field of ocean governance and is based on themes and issues covered in our annual training programme.  To download essays via open access, go to Brill web page for the book and scroll down to explore the 10 different sections. 

Published by maribus, World Ocean Review is another valuable source covering key topics in ocean and coastal governance.  Free copies can be downloaded below:
   


Last updated: 19th December 2020